This report examines the links between inequality and other major global trends (or megatrends), with a focus on technological change, climate change, urbanization and international migration. The analysis pays particular attention to poverty and labour market trends, as they mediate the distributional impacts of the major trends selected. It also provides policy recommendations to manage these megatrends in an equitable manner and considers the policy implications, so as to reduce inequalities and support their implementation.

Author Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Isbn 9210043677
Genre Social Science
Year 2020-02-14
Pages 216
Language English
File format PDF

Poverty, inequality and social welfare are defined in this book. Previous poverty studies are surveyed and a new index of poverty is developed based on everyday meanings, and stressing the individual and relative nature of poverty. Previous definitions of inequality and welfare are described and the relations between them and poverty are explored. New estimates of poverty are made for Australia. Conclusions are derived from comparisons between measured levels of poverty over time and across family types. Previous Australian studies of inequality and welfare are surveyed and new estimates are made for Australia for recent years.

Author David T. Johnson
Isbn 3662127296
Genre Business & Economics
Year 2013-11-11
Pages 185
Language English
File format PDF

Economic inequality has been of considerable interest to academics, citizens, and politicians worldwide for the past decade–and while economic inequality has attracted a considerable amount of research attention, it is only more recently that researchers have considered that economic inequality may have broader societal implications. However, while there is an increasingly clear picture of the varied ways in which economic inequality harms the fabric of society, there is a relatively poor understanding of the social psychological processes that are at work in unequal societies. This edited book aims to build on this emerging area of research by bringing together researchers who are at the forefront of this development and who can therefore provide timely insight to academics and practitioners who are grappling with the impact of economic inequality. This book will address questions relating to perceptions of inequality, mechanisms underlying effects of inequality, various consequences of inequality and the factors that contribute to the maintenance of inequality. The target audiences are students at advanced undergraduate or graduate level, as well as scholars and professionals in the field. The book fills a niche of both applied and practical relevance, strongly emphasizing theory and integration of different perspectives in social psychology. Given the broad interest in inequality within the social sciences, the book will be accessible to sociologists and political scientists as well as social, organizational, and developmental psychologists. The insights brought together in The Social Psychology of Inequality will contribute to a broader understanding of the far-reaching costs of inequality for the social health of a society and its citizens. "This edited volume brings together cutting-edge social psychological research addressing one of the most pressing issues of our times – economic inequality. Collectively, the chapters illuminate why inequality has negative effects on individuals and societies, when and for whom these negative effects are most likely to emerge, and the psychological mechanisms that maintain inequality. This comprehensive volume is an essential read for those interested in understanding and ameliorating inequality." -Brenda Major, Distinguished Professor, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California “This invaluable volume demonstrates the indispensable and powerful contribution that social psychologists can make to our understanding of societal inequality. For those outside of social psychology it provides a unique and comprehensive overview of what social psychology has to offer, and for social psychologists it is exemplary in demonstrating how to make a systematic contribution to the understanding of a hotly debated real-world issue. Scholars and students alike and from various disciplines will gain much from reading this fascinating and inspiring social psychological journey.” -Maykel Verkuyten, Professor in Interdisciplinary Social Science, University of Utrecht “The Social Psychology of Inequality offers a superb and timely social-psychological analysis of the causes and consequence of increasing wealth and income gaps. With its refreshingly international authorship, this volume offers profound insights into the cognitive and social mechanisms that help maintain, but potentially also to overcome, an economy that is rigged in favor of the wealthy. A new and stimulating voice, illustrating science in the service of a fairer and more democratic society.” -Anne Maass, Professor of Social Psychology, University of Padova “This volume assembles an impressive list of leading international scholars to address a timely and important issue, the causes and consequences of economic inequality. The approach to the topic is social psychological, but the editors and chapters make valuable connections to related literatures on socio-structural influences in allied disciplines, such as economics, political science, and sociology. The Social Psychology of Inequality offers cutting-edge insights into the psychological dynamics of inequality and novel synthesis of structural- and individual-level influences and outcomes of inequality. It should attract a wide audience and will set the agenda for research on economic inequality well into the future.” -John F. Dovidio, Carl Iver Hovland Professor of Psychology and Public Health, Yale University

Author Jolanda Jetten,Kim Peters
Isbn 3030288560
Genre Psychology
Year 2019-10-31
Pages 405
Language English
File format PDF

This report provides evidence of a fairly generalised increase in income inequality over the past two decades across OECD countries, but the timing, intensity and causes of the increase differ from what is typically suggested in the media.

Author OECD
Isbn 9264044191
Genre
Year 2008-10-21
Pages 312
Language English
File format PDF

In recent decades Japan has changed from a strongly growing, economically successful nation regarded as prime example of social equality and inclusion, to a nation with a stagnating economy, a shrinking population and a very high proportion of elderly people. Within this, new forms of inequality are emerging and deepening, and a new model of Japan as 'gap society' (kakusa shakai) has become common-sense. These new forms of inequality are complex, are caused in different ways by a variety of factors, and require deep-seated reforms in order to remedy them. This book provides a comprehensive overview of inequality in contemporary Japan. It examines inequality in labour and employment, in welfare and family, in education and social mobility, in the urban-rural divide, and concerning immigration, ethnic minorities and gender. The book also considers the widespread anxiety effect of the fear of inequality; and discusses how far these developments in Japan represent a new form of social problem for the wider world.

Author David Chiavacci,Carola Hommerich
Isbn 1317245334
Genre Social Science
Year 2016-09-13
Pages 304
Language English
File format PDF

Recently, the issue of inequality has regained attention in the economic and political debate. This is due to both an increase in income inequality, in particular among rich countries, and an increasing interest in this issue by researchers and politicians. In the last three decades, income inequality among rich countries increased. This period also witnessed the growth of "financial capitalism", characterised by the strong dependency of economies on the financial sector, by the globalisation and intensification of international trade and capital mobility, and by the "flexibilisation" of labour markets and the reduction of wage shares. From the 1980s to the present day, this book considers the theoretical aspects of inequality (its foundations, definitions, approaches and origins) and examines empirical evidence of income inequality in a wide range of advanced economies. The key arguments in this volume are that income inequality increased during this period because labour and welfare became seen as costs to be compressed in "financial capitalism" rather than as a fundamental part of aggregate demand to be expanded. However, the welfare state is not a drain on economic performance and competitiveness, nor is it a barrier to economic efficiency. Instead, it is demonstrated that in countries that adopt "welfare capitalism", welfare state expenditure not only contributes to a reduction in inequality but also fosters economic growth. Inequality in Financial Capitalism is of great importance to those who study economics, political economy, labour economics and globalisation.

Author Pasquale Tridico
Isbn 1317372107
Genre Business & Economics
Year 2017-03-16
Pages 236
Language English
File format PDF

This book highlights the key areas where inequalities are created and where new policies are required, including the consequences of current consolidation policies, structural labour market changes with rising non-standard work and job polarisation, persisting gender gaps...

Author OECD
Isbn 9264235124
Genre
Year 2015-05-21
Pages 336
Language English
File format PDF

The transition to adulthood for many is mediated by class, culture, and local/global influences on identity. This volume analyzes the global injustices that create inequities and restrict future opportunities for young people during this transitional time, including poverty, unemployment, human rights, race, ethnicity and location. It critically examines global instances of youth discrimination, offering positive strategies and practices such as youth work that successfully remediate these injustices. With international contributions from Aotearoa New Zealand, Australia, England, Malaysia, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Morocco, Jordan and the U.S., this volume is particularly important to researchers and scholars in the fields of youth studies, education, and social work.

Author Michael Heathfield,Dana Fusco
Isbn 1317612825
Genre Education
Year 2015-07-30
Pages 328
Language English
File format PDF

This book examines the relationship between migration, diversification and inequality in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The authors advance a view of migration as a diversifying force, arguing that it is necessary to grapple with the intersection of group identities, state policy and economic opportunities as part of the formation of inequalities that have deep historical legacies and substantial future implications. Exploring evidence for inequality amongst migrant populations, the book also addresses the role of multicultural politics and migration policy in entrenching inequalities, and the consequences of migrant inequalities for political participation, youth development and urban life.

Author Rachel Simon-Kumar,Francis L. Collins,Wardlow Friesen
Isbn 3030190994
Genre Political Science
Year 2019-06-11
Pages 164
Language English
File format PDF

This paper analyzes the extent of income inequality from a global perspective, its drivers, and what to do about it. The drivers of inequality vary widely amongst countries, with some common drivers being the skill premium associated with technical change and globalization, weakening protection for labor, and lack of financial inclusion in developing countries. We find that increasing the income share of the poor and the middle class actually increases growth while a rising income share of the top 20 percent results in lower growth—that is, when the rich get richer, benefits do not trickle down. This suggests that policies need to be country specific but should focus on raising the income share of the poor, and ensuring there is no hollowing out of the middle class. To tackle inequality, financial inclusion is imperative in emerging and developing countries while in advanced economies, policies should focus on raising human capital and skills and making tax systems more progressive.

Author Ms. Era Dabla-Norris,Ms. Kalpana Kochhar,Mrs. Nujin Suphaphiphat,Mr. Frantisek Ricka,Evridiki Tsounta
Isbn 1513547437
Genre Business & Economics
Year 2015-06-15
Pages 33
Language English
File format PDF

When journalists, developers, surf tourists, and conservation NGOs cast Papua New Guineans as living in a prior nature and prior culture, they devalue their knowledge and practice, facilitating their dispossession. Paige West's searing study reveals how a range of actors produce and reinforce inequalities in today's globalized world. She shows how racist rhetorics of representation underlie all uneven patterns of development and seeks a more robust understanding of the ideological work that capital requires for constant regeneration.

Author Paige West
Isbn 0231541929
Genre Social Science
Year 2016-10-11
Pages 224
Language English
File format PDF

This book is an edited collection introducing the Education Policy and Social Inequality series, and presents chapters from authors on the editorial board. It investigates relations between educational policy and social inequality, not simply in terms of policy solutions for inequalities but also how education policy frames, creates and at times exacerbates social inequalities. It adopts a critical stance, encompassing innovative and interdisciplinary theoretical and conceptual studies – drawing on e.g. sociology, cultural studies, social and cultural geography, and history – as well as original empirical work that examines a range of educational contexts, including early years education, vocational and further education, informal education, K-12 schooling and higher education. The book argues that critique and policy studies can have a transformative function, positing new dimensions for understanding the role of education policy in connection with recurrent social problems and seeking the amelioration of social inequality in ways that challenge the possibility of equity in the liberal democratic state, as well as in other forms of governance and government.

Author Stephen Parker,Kalervo N. Gulson,Trevor Gale
Isbn 9811040397
Genre Education
Year 2017-04-12
Pages 207
Language English
File format PDF

The main driver of inequality—returns on capital that exceed the rate of economic growth—is again threatening to generate extreme discontent and undermine democratic values. Thomas Piketty’s findings in this ambitious, original, rigorous work will transform debate and set the agenda for the next generation of thought about wealth and inequality.

Author Thomas Piketty
Isbn 0674982932
Genre Business & Economics
Year 2017-08-14
Pages 816
Language English
File format PDF

Looking at the social, political and legal changes in Oman since 1970, this book challenges the Islamic and tribal traditional cultural norms relating to marriage, divorce and women’s rights which guide social and legal practice in the modern Omani state. The book argues that despite the establishment of legal instruments guaranteeing equality for all citizens, the fact that the state depends upon Islamic and tribal elites for its legitimacy invalidates these guarantees in practice. Two particular features of the legal and cultural regulation of marriage and marital rights are focused on - the perceived requirement for kafa’a or equality in marriage between so called high and low socio-economic status peoples is examined, and the institution of talaq, which grants greater rights to men than to women in appeals for divorce. This book addresses highly complex subjects with great rigor, in terms of empirical research and engagement with theory, sociological and political as well as theological and legal. It is an interesting investigation of the divisions of authority between the state, Islam and tribal norms, highlighting barriers to reform in both Oman and wider Islamic society, and advocating the removal of such obstacles.

Author Khalid M. Al-Azri
Isbn 9781136295805
Genre Social Science
Year 2012-10-12
Pages 224
Language English
File format PDF

Long-running trends towards increasing inequality between the rich and poor across Europe have been exacerbated by the 2008 global financial crisis and its aftermath. As employment opportunities for young people diminish and as the welfare state is pulled back, pathways to adulthood change and become more difficult to navigate. Transitions to Adulthood Through Recession consists of a collection of papers by researchers from Britain, Norway, Germany, Portugal, Italy and Greece, locating young people’s transitions to adulthood in their national social, economic and political contexts. It explores young adulthood with reference to generational continuity and change and intergenerational support. With a cross-national comparative framework, this volume highlights the importance of variations in structural contexts for young people’s transitions. Bringing together authors across sub-disciplines such as the sociology of youth, family and kinship, class and inequality and life-course studies, Transitions to Adulthood Through Recession will appeal to academic social scientists as well as final-year undergraduate and postgraduate students interested in fields such as political science, sociology, youth studies, social policy, anthropology and psychology; and a wider public readership.

Author Sarah Irwin,Ann Nilsen
Isbn 135186579X
Genre Social Science
Year 2018-04-19
Pages 204
Language English
File format PDF

For anyone wanting to learn, in practical terms, how to measure, describe, monitor, evaluate, and analyze poverty, this Handbook is the place to start. It is designed to be accessible to people with a university-level background in science or the social sciences. It is an invaluable tool for policy analysts, researchers, college students, and government officials working on policy issues related to poverty and inequality.

Author Jonathan Haughton,Shahidur R. Khandker
Isbn 9780821376140
Genre Business & Economics
Year 2009-03-27
Pages 442
Language English
File format PDF

This book examines twenty-five years of the Australian framework for student equity in higher education, A Fair Chance for All. Divided into two sections, the book reflects on the legacy of equity policy in higher education, the effectiveness of current approaches, and the likely challenges facing future policymakers. The first section explores the creation of the framework, including the major elements of the policy, the political context of its development, and how it compares with international models developed during the same period. The performance of the six student equity groups identified within the framework is also examined. The second section of the book considers future trends and challenges. The Australian university sector has undergone seismic change in the past twenty-five years and faces further changes of equal magnitude. The twenty-fifth anniversary of A Fair Chance for All comes as Australian higher education is poised for another wave of transformation, with rising expansion, competition, and stratification. While the emerging landscape is new, the questions have changed little since A Fair Chance for All was first conceived: How should we define student equity, and what policies are likely to promote it?

Author Andrew Harvey,Catherine Burnheim,Matthew Brett
Isbn 9811003157
Genre Education
Year 2016-03-29
Pages 292
Language English
File format PDF

This book offers an innovative, interdisciplinary approach to thinking about inequality, and to understanding how inequality is produced and reproduced in the global South. Without the safety net of the various Northern welfare states, inequality in the global South is not merely a socio-economic problem, but an existential threat to the social contract that underpins the democratic state and society itself. Only a response that is firmly grounded in the context of the global South can hope to address this problem. This collection brings together scholars from across the globe, with a particular focus on the global South, to address broad thematic areas such as the conceptual and methodological challenges of measuring inequality; the political economy of inequality in the global South; inequality in work, households and the labour market; and inequalities in land, spaces and cities. The book concludes by suggesting alternatives for addressing inequality in the global South and around the world. The pioneering ideas and theories put forward by this volume make it essential reading for students and researchers of global inequality across the fields of sociology, economics, law, politics, global studies and development studies.

Author David Francis,Imraan Valodia,Edward Webster
Isbn 1000061914
Genre Social Science
Year 2020-05-25
Pages 272
Language English
File format PDF

Addressing health inequalities is a key focus for health and social care organizations, yet this is the first book to explore how best frontline health workers in areas of deprivation can address these problems. Aimed at doctors and their wider multidisciplinary teams, this book provides key knowledge and practical advice on how to address the causes and consequences of health inequalities to achieve better outcomes for patients. Considering the psychological, financial and social aspects of well-being as well as health concerns, this book offers a concise but comprehensive overview of the key issues in health inequalities and, most importantly, how practically to address them. Key Features Comprehensively covers the breadth of subjects identified by RCGP’s work to formulate a curriculum for health inequalities The first book to address the urgent area of causes and consequences of health inequalities in clinical practice. Chapters are authored by expert practitioners with proven experience in each aspect of health care. Applied, practical focus, demonstrating approaches that will work and can be applied in ‘every’ situation of inequality. Provides evidence of how community based primary care can make a change.

Author James Matheson,John Patterson,Laura Neilson
Isbn 1351013890
Genre Medical
Year 2020-01-24
Pages 320
Language English
File format PDF