How do alliances, in the aggregate, "behave"? What explains the actions and performance of alliances? Within alliances, how do members' actions and performance vary, and what explains that variance? This book addresses these questions with respect to one of the world's principal alliances of the late twentieth century, the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), also known as the Warsaw Pact. The author argues that though we understand a great deal about the military hardware of the Warsaw Pact, little is known about its reliability, cohesiveness, and the distribution of military burden within it--all key variables, he argues, in influencing change in alliance behavior. In each chapter he offers a new way to measure one of these variables and suggests possible explanations for variance. In addition, he examines the effect East-West relations have on cohesion and how Warsaw Pact allies have distributed the defense effort in the past. A concluding chapter is devoted to an empirical assessment of Warsaw Pact alliance behavior, combining indicators of cohesion, reliability, and burden-sharing in a general portrait of the WTO as a collective actor in international politics.

Author Daniel N. Nelson
Isbn 0429712227
Genre Political Science
Year 2019-03-13
Pages 134
Language English
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The Warsaw Pact is generally regarded as a mere instrument of Soviet power. In the 1960s the alliance nevertheless evolved into a multilateral alliance, in which the non-Soviet Warsaw Pact members gained considerable scope for manoeuvre. This book examines to what extent the Warsaw Pact inadvertently provided its members with an opportunity to assert their own interests, emancipate themselves from the Soviet grip, and influence Soviet bloc policy. Laurien Crump traces this development through six thematic case studies, which deal with such well known events as the building of the Berlin Wall, the Sino-Soviet Split, the Vietnam War, the nuclear question, and the Prague Spring. By interpreting hitherto neglected archival evidence from archives in Berlin, Bucharest, and Rome, and approaching the Soviet alliance from a radically novel perspective, the book offers unexpected insights into international relations in Eastern Europe, while shedding new light on a pivotal period in the Cold War.

Author Laurien Crump
Isbn 1317555309
Genre Social Science
Year 2015-02-11
Pages 322
Language English
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This essential new volume reviews the threat perceptions, military doctrines, and war plans of both the NATO alliance and the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War, as well as the position of the neutrals, from the post-Cold War perspective. Based on previously unknown archival evidence from both East and West, the twelve essays in the book focus on the potential European battlefield rather than the strategic competition between the superpowers. They present conclusions about the nature of the Soviet threat that could previously only be speculated about and analyze the interaction between military matters and politics in the alliance management on both sides, with implications for the present crisis of the Western alliance. This new book will be of much interest for students of the Cold War, strategic history and international relations history, as well as all military colleges.

Author Vojtech Mastny,Sven S. Holtsmark,Andreas Wenger
Isbn 1136011900
Genre History
Year 2013-04-15
Pages 322
Language English
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The classic reference work that provides annually updated information on the countries of the world.

Author J. Paxton
Isbn 0230271197
Genre Political Science
Year 2016-12-20
Pages 1728
Language English
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This innovative collection deals with the ideational, cultural, political and strategic aspects of the multifaceted Cold War. Drawing on the work of numerous established scholars and experts, this volume combines knowledge of the subject with key intellectual trends that have been developed over recent years.

Author Geraint Hughes
Isbn 0230502148
Genre History
Year 2006-05-31
Pages 303
Language English
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A comprehensive study of the Warsaw Treaty Organization. The author examines the historical events which led to its formation, its development as a military machine, and focuses on both the political and the military aspects of the WTO and its international relations with non-WTO countries.

Author Neil Fodor
Isbn 134911250X
Genre History
Year 1990-06-18
Pages 235
Language English
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This is the first book to document, analyze, and interpret the history of the Warsaw Pact based on the archives of the alliance itself. As suggested by the title, the Soviet bloc military machine that held the West in awe for most of the Cold War does not appear from the inside as formidable as outsiders often believed, nor were its strengths and weaknesses the same at different times in its surprisingly long history, extending for almost half a century.

Author Vojtech Mastny,Malcolm Byrne
Isbn 9789637326080
Genre Political Science
Year 2005-01-01
Pages 726
Language English
File format PDF

The classic reference work that provides annually updated information on the countries of the world.

Author J. Paxton
Isbn 0230271189
Genre Political Science
Year 2016-12-28
Pages 1728
Language English
File format PDF

An analysis of the defence policies of the Warsaw Pact Southern Tier in the Balkans as well as the military posture of Yugoslavia and Albania. The book concentrates on capabilities rather than assumed intentions, seeking to highlight the military realities of the region.

Author Jonathan Eyal
Isbn 1349099414
Genre Political Science
Year 1989-06-18
Pages 246
Language English
File format PDF

Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War – a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the Cold War discusses how this state of perpetual tensions arose, developed, and was resolved. This work examines the military, economic, diplomatic, and political evolution of the conflict as well as its impact on the different regions and cultures of the world. Using a unique geopolitical approach that will present Russian perspectives and others, the work covers all aspects of the Cold War, from communism to nuclear escalation and from UFOs to red diaper babies, highlighting its vast-ranging and lasting impact on international relations as well as on daily life. Although the work will focus on the 1945–1991 period, it will explore the roots of the conflict, starting with the formation of the Soviet state, and its legacy to the present day.

Author Ruud van Dijk,William Glenn Gray,Svetlana Savranskaya,Jeremi Suri,Qiang Zhai
Isbn 1135923108
Genre Reference
Year 2013-05-13
Pages 1146
Language English
File format PDF

Buffer states—countries geographically and/or politically situated between two or more regional or global powers—function to maintain peace between the larger powers. Contributors to this book, the first devoted to the buffer state concept, analyze the geographical and political factors necessary for the establishment and maintenance of a buffer state and examine its role in helping to maintain world peace. The problems and prospects of buffer states and buffer zones and the multiple roles played by the buffer in international politics are also explored. Using information from a number of countries, including Lebanon, Afghanistan, Korea, and Uruguay, the contributors argue that the function of the buffer state has not diminished with the advance of modern technology, but that the prospects for a long life for any particular buffer state are tenuous. Nevertheless, they conclude that although the international benefits from any one buffer state tend to be short term, the continued existence of the system will be an important element in preventing armed conflict in many parts of the world.

Author John Chay
Isbn 0429712375
Genre Political Science
Year 2019-03-13
Pages 246
Language English
File format PDF

Based largely on primary sources in the Russian language, this succinct volume cover the following aspects of Soviet foreign policy: world outlook, personalities and structures of the decisionmaking process, implementation of objectives, and a discussion of practices toward geographic regions as well as specific countries.

Author Richard F. Staar
Isbn 081798593X
Genre Political Science
Year 2013-09-01
Pages 336
Language English
File format PDF

This book, first published in 1990, examines the nature and causes of the changes to Soviet national security policy under Gorbachev. Changes in leadership and institutional arrangements, economic policy, ideology and military involvement all fostered new patterns of cooperation and competition. Authors look at the historical, economic and cultural contexts of change and proceed to a discussion of change agents, such as modernization, technology and domestic politics. Specific components of foreign and military policy, such as arms control and relations with Western Europe, the Warsaw Pact and the Third World, are also examined.

Author George E. Hudson
Isbn 1000280446
Genre History
Year 2021-01-27
Pages 334
Language English
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In the wake of Ceausescu's tyrannical regime, the world is watching closely as Romania struggles to assert a new democratic vision. This volume combines the perspectives of US scholars and Romanians to provide an assessment of the Romanian question. After analyzing the revolution itself and the burdens left by the Ceausescu regime, the book then considers the prospects for a successful transition toward democracy, given the strong barriers to structural and political change. Several contributors grapple with the issues of society, economy and foreign policy, posing questions such as: how will the Romanian people reconcile themselves to a more open political system?; what will the future economic landscape look like?; and how will Romania's role in Europe and world change? The book concludes with essays by Romanians active in the political scene who offer insights into the heart of the country's most serious dilemmas.

Author Daniel N Nelson
Isbn 1000310272
Genre Political Science
Year 2019-06-19
Pages 312
Language English
File format PDF

Das Buch ist eine Analyse von Aufstieg und Fall des sowjetischen Herrschaftssystems in dem Gebiet, das zur Zeit des Kalten Krieges "Osteuropa" genannt wurde, und der Rolle, die das Deutschlandproblem dabei gespielt hat. Gestützt auf die Auswertung neuer Quellen aus den Partei- und Staatsarchiven ehemals kommunistischerer Länder rekonstruiert es die folgende Entwicklung: die Teilung Deutschlands und dabei die Rolle der Sowjetunion unter Stalin; das eiserne Festhalten seiner Nachfolger an der Teilung; ihr zunehmendes Bewusstsein der hohen Kosten, welche die Aufrechterhaltung des imperialen Systems in Ostmitteleuropa verursachte; der Fehlschlag ihrer Anstrengungen, die wachsende wirtschaftliche und finanzielle Abhängigkeit der DDR von der Bundesrepublik zu verhindern; und schließlich die Gründe dafür, warum Gorbatschow die Auflösung des sowjetischen Herrschaftsbereichs in Ostmitteleuropa hinnahm und sogar der Mitgliedschaft des wiedervereinigten Deutschlands in der Nato zustimmte."Angesichts der russischen Okkupation der Krim, der anhaltenden Krise in der Ostukraine und der dadurch ausgelösten Gegenreaktionen von NATO und EU scheint sich der Kalte Krieg in Europa zurückgemeldet zu haben. Geeigneter kann der Zeitpunkt für die überarbeitete Neuauflage des sich inzwischen zu einem Standardwerk entwickelten Buches von Hannes Adomeit nicht sein. Seine profunde Kenntnis und Auseinandersetzung mit sowjetischer und russischer Politik seit fünf Jahrzehnten und sein Zugang zu neuem russischen Archivmaterial qualifiziert ihn zu einem der besten und erfahrensten Experten auf internationaler Ebene. Wer die sowjetische Politik nach dem II. Weltkrieg bis zur Wiedervereinigung Deutschlands und ihre Implikationen für die letzten 25 Jahre verstehen will, kommt an Adomeits Buch und seiner analytischen Brillanz nicht vorbei". Prof. Dr. h.c. Horst Teltschik, September 2015 "Of all of the analyses of the fall of the Soviet Union and reunification of Germany, Hannes Adomeit's 1998 classic, "Imperial Overstretch", has stood the test of time. Its re-publication here by Nomos, with some modest updates by the author, will be welcomed by scholars, students, the policy community, and the informed public, as a trenchant interpretation of what happened to the 'Soviet bloc', but also as an introduction to the assertive imperial politics of Vladimir Putin and the Russian Federation." Norman M. Naimark, Stanford University, November 2015

Author Hannes Adomeit
Isbn 3845266112
Genre Political Science
Year 2016-07-11
Pages 756
Language English
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Eastern Europe is changing dramatically. Communist governments have been replaced, economies are being privatised, older nationalisms are reawakening. Developments in Eastern European Politics provides an analytic guide to the politics of transition, including both country studies and more broadly comparative discussions of leaderships and parties, movements and market reforms, social welfare and international politics. Detailed, up to date and authoritative, this will become the first-choice guide to the politics of the new Eastern Europe.

Author Stephen White,Judy Batt,Paul Geoffrey Lewis
Isbn 1349228982
Genre Europe, Eastern
Year 1993-08-13
Pages 304
Language English
File format PDF

Beyond the Wall is the first book, in either English or German, to tell the whole story of the extraordinary revolution that demolished the Berlin Wall, ended the Cold war, and tore apart the Soviet regime. Elizabeth Pond, former Moscow and European correspondent for the Christian Science Monitor, was an eyewitness to the dramatic events of 1989-92 and to the fifteen years of relations between Germany and Eastern Europe leading up to them. Pond weaves together in riveting prose the strands of events that are usually recounted separately. Rather than looking just at the East German revolt or the process of unification that created a new nation, she traces the interaction of these events and their diplomatic consequences for Europe. Pond shows the political, economic, and social forces at work--leading up to the unification, during the transition process, and in the aftermath. Looking at the European framework, she explains how significantly the European Community and its move toward integration both affected and were affected by German unification. The book contains a wealth of new information form hundreds of interviews with top German and American policymakers, East German Politburo members and average German citizens. It also incorporates up-to-date research on such topics as the Stasi secret police and the midlife crisis of the German left. Pond concludes with an assessment of the roles of the United States and a unified Germany in the new Europe. Calling for a continued partnership between the United States and Germany, who "have come through a common baptism of fire since the fall of the Berlin Wall," Pond casts an optimistic eye toward the future.

Author Elizabeth Pond
Isbn 9780815705796
Genre Political Science
Year 2010-12-01
Pages 367
Language English
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In this ambitious work, Bennett Kovrig lucidly traces the economic, political and ideological developments that have characterized U.S. relations with Eastern Europe since World War II. Kovrig provides a refreshingly objective examination of the complex evolution of events that led to the end of the cold war. His account of the days prior ro America's global confrontation with the U.S.S.R. when U.S. interests in Eastern Europe were minimal, of the economic and psychological warfare of the cold war, and of the growing diversity of Eastern European nations that contributed to the upheavals of 1989 offers a rich and comprehensive background to the current scenario.

Author Bennett Kovrig
Isbn 0814748554
Genre Political Science
Year 1991-06-01
Pages 440
Language English
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In this new Brookings Marshall Paper, Michael O’Hanlon argues that now is the time for Western nations to negotiate a new security architecture for neutral countries in eastern Europe to stabilize the region and reduce the risks of war with Russia. He believes NATO expansion has gone far enough. The core concept of this new security architecture would be one of permanent neutrality. The countries in question collectively make a broken-up arc, from Europe’s far north to its south: Finland and Sweden; Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus; Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan; and finally Cyprus plus Serbia, as well as possibly several other Balkan states. Discussion on the new framework should begin within NATO, followed by deliberation with the neutral countries themselves, and then formal negotiations with Russia. The new security architecture would require that Russia, like NATO, commit to help uphold the security of Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, and other states in the region. Russia would have to withdraw its troops from those countries in a verifiable manner; after that, corresponding sanctions on Russia would be lifted. The neutral countries would retain their rights to participate in multilateral security operations on a scale comparable to what has been the case in the past, including even those operations that might be led by NATO. They could think of and describe themselves as Western states (or anything else, for that matter). If the European Union and they so wished in the future, they could join the EU. They would have complete sovereignty and self-determination in every sense of the word. But NATO would decide not to invite them into the alliance as members. Ideally, these nations would endorse and promote this concept themselves as a more practical way to ensure their security than the current situation or any other plausible alternative.

Author Michael E. O'Hanlon
Isbn 0815732589
Genre Political Science
Year 2017-08-15
Pages 176
Language English
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Rebirth: A History of Europe Since World War II examines the transition of Europe from a period of crisis to an era of political confidence and economic strength. As the title suggests, the pervasive theme of the book is that of rebirth. The most recent decades are set in the context of modern European history as a whole. The authors trace the disillusionment and uncertainty that overcame Europe at the turn of the twentieth century and that culminated in the devastation of the Second World War. In their analysis of the political and economic causes of the renaissance that has followed the demise of the Cold War, the authors highlight the themes of national integration and economic modernization.The chapters are uniquely organized to present both international and domestic developments in Europe as coherent wholes as well as the importance of their interaction. The initial analysis of key international developments in the twentieth century helps students to understand the relationship between foreign and domestic events and provides background for the substantial discussion of the major European countries that follows in chapters devoted to each national experience. The political and economic histories of these nation-states are considered in terms of their individual traditions and challenges, and the authors explore difficult issues such as the overall costs and benefits of the scientific-technological revolution, the pursuit of social justice, the proper role of the state and of political parties, and contrasting national paths of economic and political development.Rebirth is designed as a text for use in courses on modern European history ? especially twentieth-century Europe ? and for students of comparative politics who are seeking a substantial consideration of the historical factors of European politics. In this revised edition, the authors have updated the text with an analysis of developments since 1991 and added recent scholarship to the lists of Suggested Readings.

Author Cyril Black
Isbn 0429977441
Genre History
Year 2018-05-04
Pages 724
Language English
File format PDF